You are here

The Right to Be Forgotten in the European Digital Legislation (the case of France)

Научные исследования: 


For citation: Chikishev N.A. (2017) Pravo na zabvenie v evropeyskom tsifrovom zakonodatel'stve (na primere Frantsii) [The Right to Be Forgotten in the European Digital Legislation (the case of France)]. Mediaskop 3. (in Russian). Available at:


© Nikolay A. Chikishev
PhD Student at the Chair of Foreign Journalism and Literature, Faculty of Journalism, Lomonosov Moscow State University (Moscow, Russia),



In the early 2000s, the "right to be forgotten" became one of the new forms of rights in the digital environment. The purpose of this paper is to analyze this new area of the French legislation with it being one of the most indicative among European countries. The author examined the debate around the adoption of new laws in EU and France, analyzed legal precedents related to this right and found differences in the interpretation of the "right to be forgotten". As a result, we identified several key issues in the digital industry: jurisdiction of multinational IT-companies, control of private data and responsibility for its protection and the courts' involvement in resolving conflicts between participants of the digital environment. Findings of this paper give recommendations allowing for a fresh look at the problem of the "right to be forgotten", and offer a solution of legal contradictions.

Keywords: right to be forgotten, private data, internet, digital rights.



A comprehensive approach on personal data protection in the European Union. En European Commission. Brussels. 04.11.2010. Available at: (aссessed: 04.07.2016).

Arrêt de la Cour (grande chambre) de l'affaire C131/12 [Judgment of the Court (Grand Chamber) In Case C131/12]. Infocuria − Case-law of the Court of Justice. 13.05.2014. Available at: (aссessed: 04.07.2016).

Article L34-1 du Code des postes et des communications électroniques [Article L34-1 of the French Code of Posts and Electronic Communications]. Available at: (aссessed: 04.07.2016).

Berne X. Loi Lemaire, droit à l'oubli, loi Renseignement: interview de la présidente de la CNIL [The Law of Lemaire, Right to Be Forgotten, Intelligence Act: interview of the president of the CNIL]. Next Inpact. 14.09.2015. Available at: (aссessed: 04.07.2016).

Berne X. Le projet de "droit à l'oubli" européen critiqué par les géants du net [The Proposed "Right to Be Forgotten" European Criticized by the Giants of the Net]. Next Inpact. 17.04.2012. Available at: (aссessed: 04.07.2016).

Charte du droit à l'oubli dans les sites collaboratifs et les moteurs de recherche [Charter Right to Be Forgotten in the Collaborative Sites and Search Engines]. 30.09.2010. Available at: (aссessed: 04.07.2016).

CNIL orders Google to apply delisting on all domain names of the search engine. CNIL. 12.06.2015. Available at: (aссessed: 04.07.2016).

Directive 95/46/CE du Parlement européen et du Conseil, du 24 octobre 1995, relative à la protection des personnes physiques à l'égard du traitement des données à caractère personnel et à la libre circulation de ces données [Directive on the Protection of Individuals with Regard to the Processing of Personal Data and on the Free Movement of Such Data]. Journal officiel n° L 281 du 23/11/1995 p. 0031−0050. Available at: (aссessed: 04.07.2016).

Décision n°2015-047 du 21 mai 2015 mettant en demeure la société GOOGLE Inc. [Decision № 2015-047 from May 21, 2015, Presenting a Claim to the Google Inc.]. CNIL. 21.05.2015. Available at:ссessed: 04.07.2016).

Délibération n°2011-035 de la formation restreinte prononçant une sanction pécuniaire à l'encontre de la société GOOGLE Inc. [Decision № 2011-035 on the Preparation of Material Penalty as for the Company Google Inc.]. CNIL. 17.03.2011. Available at: (aссessed: 04.07.2016).

Droit au déréférencement : la formation restreinte de la CNIL prononce une sanction de 100.000 € à l'encontre de Google [Right to Delete Links: Preparation of 100 000 Euros Penalty by the CNIL as for Google]. CNIL. 24.03.2016. Available at: (aссessed: 04.07.2016).

Droit au déréférencement : rejet du recours gracieux formé par Google à l'encontre de la mise en demeure [Right to Delete Links: Dismissal of an Appeal Concerning Ultimatum Filed by Google Company]. CNIL. 21.09.2015. Available at: (aссessed: 04.07.2016).

European Comission. Press Release Database. Brussels, 16 March 2011. Available at: (aссessed: 04.07.2016).

Fleischer P. Implementing a European, not global, right to be forgotten. Google Europe Blog. 30.07.2015. Режим доступа: (дата обращения: 04.07.2016).

La formation restreinte de la CNIL prononce une sanction pécuniaire de 150 000 € à l'encontre de la société GOOGLE Inc. [Preparation of a CNIL for Material Recovery of 150,000 Euros Against Google Inc.]. CNIL. 08.01.2014. Available at: (aссessed: 04.07.2016). Available at: (aссessed: 04.07.2016).

Le procureur Philippe Courroye mis en examen [Prosecutor Philippe Courrois Begins an Investigation]. Le Figaro. 17.01.2012. Available at: (aссessed: 04.07.2016).

Loi n° 78-17 du 6 janvier 1978 relative à l'informatique, aux fichiers et aux libertés [Law n°78-17 of 6th January 1978 relating toinformation technology, files and freedom].

Proposition de règlement du parlement européen et du conseil relatif à la protection des personnes physiques à l'égard du traitement des données à caractère personnel et à la libre circulation de ces données (règlement général sur la protection des données) [Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the Protection of Natural Persons with Regard to the Processing of Personal Data and on the Free Movement of Such Data, and Repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation) (Text with EEA relevance)]. Comission Européenne. 25.01.2012. Available at: (aссessed: 04.07.2016).

Rapport sur une approche globale de la protection des données à caractère personnel dans l'Union européenne [Report on a Comprehensive Approach to the Protection of Personal Data in the European Union]. Le Parlement européen. 22.06.2011. Available at: (aссessed: 04.07.2016).

Rees M. Les FADET divulguées doivent-elles être notifiées à la CNIL? [Should the CNIL Publicize Released FADET Files?]. Next Inpact. 29.08.2011. Available at: (aссessed: 04.07.2016).

Rees M. L'Europe au chevet de vos données personnelles [Europe on Guard of Your Personal Data]. Next Inpact. 20.05.2013. Available at: (aссessed: 04.07.2016).

Udalenie rezul'tatov poiska po lichnym zaprosam ot grazhdan ES // Otchet o dostupnosti servisov i dannykh Google [Removal of Search Results for Personal Requests of the EU Citizens // Report on the Availability of Google Services and Data]. Available at: (aссessed: 04.07.2016).

Untersinger M. «Droit à l'oubli»: les autorités françaises rejettent la demande de Google ["Right to Be Forgotten": the French Authorities Reject the Request to Google]. Le Monde. 21.09.2015. Available at: (aссessed: 04.07.2016).

Walker K. A principle that should not be forgotten. Google Europe blog. 19.05.2016. Available at: (aссessed: 04.07.2016).



Pashchenko I.Yu. (2016) Pravo byt' zabytym: zarubezhnyy i rossiyskiy opyt pravovogo regulirovaniya [The Right to Be Forgotten: Foreign and Russian Experience of Legal Regulation]. Nauka. Mysl': elektronnyy periodicheskiy zhurnal 4: 189−192. (In Russian). Available at: (aссessed: 04.07.2016).

Pashchenko I.Yu. (2016) Problema normativnogo regulirovaniya «prava byt' zabytym» v seti Internet [The Issue of Statutory Regulation of "the Right to Be Forgotten" in the Internet]. Evraziyskaya advokatura 3 (22): 106−113.

Stuart A.H. (2014) Google search results: buried if not forgotten. North Carolina Journal of Law & Technology 15(3): 463−517. Available at: (aссessed: 04.07.2016).

Talapina E.V. (2012) Pravovaya zashchita personal'nykh dannykh vo Frantsii [Legal protection of personal data in France]. Pravo. Zhurnal Vysshey shkoly ekonomiki 4: 152−162.

Weber R.H. (2011) The Right to Be Forgotten: More Than a Pandora's Box? JIPITEC 120 (1). Available at:

Werro F. (2009) The Right to Inform v. the Right to be Forgotten: A Transatlantic Crash.

Georgetown University. Center for Transnational Legal Studies Colloquium. Research Paper, no. 2, May, pp. 285−300. Available at: (aссessed: 04.07.2016).

Zakharova M.V., Semina M.P. (2012) Funktsionirovanie zakona o soblyudenii prav intellektual'noy sobstvennosti v Internete vo Frantsii (2010−2011 gg.) [Functioning of the State Law on Intellectual Copyright in the French Segment of the Internet (2010-2011)]. Mediaskop 2. (In Russian). Available at: (aссessed: 04.07.2016).