For citation: Lapshina G.S. (2016) Obrashchenie k amerikanskoy deystvitel'nosti kak otrazhenie osobennosti russkogo feminizma 1860−1870-kh gg.: publitsistika E.I. Konradi [Appeal to the American Reality as the Reflection of the Specificity of Russian Feminism in 1860-1870: Publicism by E. I. Konradi]. Mediaskop 3. Available at: http://www.mediascope.ru/node/2166
© Galina S. Lapshina
PhD in philology, Associate Professor at the Chair of History of Russian Journalism and Literature, Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University, (Moscow, Russia), firstname.lastname@example.org
In this article it is stated, that the prominent Russian activist of women's movement of the second half of the 19th century and the head of the newspaper Nedelya (the most radical print edition by the turn of 1860−70), Evgeniya I. Konradi thought emancipation to be an integral part of the general problem of the entire Russian socio-political life democratization.
Defending the right of women to higher education and work, she tried to explain the reader that the solution to these problems relates closely to the need of modernization of the country as a whole. Appeal to the reality of the United States gave her the opportunity to make it clear. Thus, contributing to the magazine Zhenskiy Vestnik of spouses Messarosh, where she held the most radical position, Evgeniya Conradi paid great attention to the struggle of American women for political rights.
Her interest in this aspect of American feminism was very important, because by the beginning of voting rights' reforms in Russia not only women had no electoral rights, but also men and the representative power itself was absent. The reforms did not change much in this respect, the autocracy remained, the elections in local self-authorities were limited by class, and women had no right to participate.
The development of capitalist manufacturing in Russia has increased the demand for unskilled labor of women, for which they were paid in average 30−40% less than men. That is why it is understandable that the attention of Konradi was drawn to those feminist publications in the United States, in which the need to fight for an increase of wages for women was discussed.
Konradi put a lot of effort in the struggle for women's right to study at universities and wrote more than once about this, referring to the experience of several European countries and the United States. Promoting the need for the development of political freedoms, Evgeniya Konradi paid much attention to the history of the United States in the magazine Zagranichnyi Vestnik, which actual leader was the future editor of the emigre newspaper Vperyod P.L. Lavrov. The same was applicable also in the case of the magazine Russkoye Bogatstvo, in which she quoted the Declaration of Independence of the United States adopted on July 4, 1776.
Key words: Evgeniya Konradi, women's issue in Russia, feminism in the United States, Max Wirth, Henry Charles Carey, the magazine Zhenskiy Vestnik, the magazine Zagranichnyi Vestnik, the newspaper Nedelya.
Chernyshevskiy N.G. (1950) Poln. sobr. soch.: v 15 t. [Complete Set of Works in 15 volumes] Moscow: Goslitizdat Publ., vol.VII, p. 920.
Nedelya. 1868. № 18; 1869. № 17; 1873. № 6.
Rabstvo v SShA [Slavery in the USA]. Available at: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A0%
Russkoe slovo. 1865. № 7, № 12.
Stasov V.V. (1899) Nadezhda Vasil'evna Stasova. Vospominaniya i ocherki [Nadezhda Vasilyevna Vlasova. Memories and Sketches]. St. Petersburg: Tipografiya M. Merkusheva Publ., p. 171.
Vernadskaya M.N. (2007) Sochineniya [Writings]. Moscow: Izdatel'skiy Dom Tonchu Publ.
Vestnik Evropy. 1870. № 6.
Zagranichnyy vestnik. 1864. № 2; 1865. № 5, № 6; 1881. Vol. 1.
Zhenskiy vestnik. 1866. № 1, № 2.
Znanie. 1871. № 8.
Lapshina G.S. (2015) Liberal'nyy "Vestnik Evropy" i tsenzura reformatorov [The Liberal Magazine Vestnik Evropy and Censorship of the "Reformers"]. Mediaskop 2. (In Russ.) Available at: http://www.mediascope.ru/?q=node/1733
Lapshina G.S. (2014) Mariya Nikolaevna Vernadskaya − ideolog svobodnogo truda [Maria Vernadskaya − Ideologist of Free Labour]. Mediaskop 3. (In Russ.) Available at: http://www.mediascope.ru/?q=node/1593
Lapshina G.S. (2012) Zhenskoe litso russkoy zhurnalistiki [The Female Face of Russian Journalism]. Moscow: MediaMir Publ.
Nikulina N.N. (2010) Lichnost' kak dominiruyushchiy faktor obshchestvennogo progressa v kontseptsii N.V. Shelgunova [Personality as a Dominant Factor of Social Progress in N. V. Shelgunov's Concept]. Vestnik MGTU 13(2): 321−328. (In Russ.) Available at: http://vestnik.mstu.edu.ru/v13_2_n39/articles/13_nikul.pdf
Pietrov-Ennker B. (2005) «Novye lyudi» Rossii. Razvitie zhenskogo dvizheniya ot istokov do Oktyabr'skoy revolyutsii ["New people" of Russia. The Development of the Women's Movement from its Origins to the October Revolution]. Moscow: Izdatel'skiy tsentr RGGU Publ.
Stayts R. (2004) Zhenskoe osvoboditel'noe dvizhenie v Rossii: feminizm, nigilizm i bol'shevizm 1860−1930 [Women's Liberation Movement in Russia: Feminism, Nihilism and Bolshevism, 1860−1930]. Moscow: Rossiyskaya polititicheskaya entsiklopediya Publ.
Stepanova O.Yu. (2012) Obretenie zhenshchinami dostupa k vysshemu obrazovaniyu v kontse XVIII − nachale XX vekov v SShA[Finding Women's Access to Higher Education in the Late 18th − early 20th centuries in the United States]. (In Russ.) Available at: http://superinf.ru/view_helpstud.php?id=5404